The body chemistry


We are made of atoms and combination of atoms because different elements in the body. The human body needs to ingest the atoms for its continued survival. These atoms are combined into gases , nutrients, molecules,hormones, micro nutrients, elements , Neuro transmitters, fluids like blood , and so forth. The body converts , stores , process , combine all what we need to function. The chemistry of the body is so complex and integrated with all the body systems it’s a miracle that we exist.

Here are few interesting facts to meditate on

Every hydrogen atom in your body is likely 13.5 billion years old because they were created at the birth of the universe.

There is about 0.4 pound or 200 grams of salt (NaCl) in the average adult human body

The body contains enough carbon to provide “lead” for 9,000 pencils.

The biggest molecule in nature resides in your body. It is chromosome

If you lost all your empty atomic space in your body would fit into a cube less than 1/500th of a centimetre on each side.

There are 94 naturally occurring chemical elements in the world, and our bodies are made up over 60 of them.

The hardest chemical in your body is your tooth enamel.

More than 78% of human brain consists of water.

Hormones the body messenger system

A hormone is a chemical that is released into the bloodstream to send a message to another part of the body. The hormones are released into the bloodstream carried around the body.

Hormones duties are:

Growth and development

Metabolism

Sexual function

Reproduction

Mood

Endocrine system is a network of glands in the body that make the hormones They’re responsible for almost every cell, organ, and function in your body.

Hypothalamus is the conductor of endocrine system. It is responsible for maintaining your body’s internal balance, which is known as homeostasis.

estrogen is thought to be the “female hormone” while testosterone is the “male hormone,” but men and women need both.

In 1902, English physiologists William Bayliss and Ernest Starling concluded that chemicals — which they later named hormones

In response to stress, the endocrine system quickly secretes various hormones at higher-than-normal levels in order to help the body mobilize more energy and adapt to new circumstances.

For those who have trouble sleeping, researchers say that one week of camping, without electronics, resets our biological body clock and synchronizes our melatonin hormones with sunrise and sunset

Vitamin D is the only vitamin that is also a hormone and that a deficiency can lead to numerous mental illnesses such as depression and Schizophrenia

Molecules building blocks of human body

There are thousands of different molecules in the human body
Depending on the body mass and weight dictates the different composition of molecules in the body
Below weight 57 Kg individual summary

Water 61% 34.8 Kg
Fat 16% 9.12 Kg
Protein 16% 9.12 Kg
Minerals 3.4 Kg
Carbohydrates 1% 0.57 Kg

Oxygen A protein called haemoglobin in the red blood cells then carries the oxygen around your bod

DNA is a long molecule that contains each person’s unique genetic code. It holds the instructions for building the proteins that are essential for our bodies to function.

ATP is essentially the energy currency of the body. ATP is not a storage molecule for chemical energy; When energy is needed by the cell it is converted from storage molecules into ATP.

Fats Dietary fats are essential to give your body energy and to support cell growth. The four types saturated fats, trans fats, Monounsaturated fats and
polyunsaturated fats

Enzymes speed up chemical reactions in the human body. They bind to molecules. They are essential for respiration, digesting food, muscle and nerve function, and other duties.

Chromosome is the biggest molecule in the body. In the body each cell normally contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46. part of the cell that carries parents information in the form of genes to next generation.

The cell the hidden universe

The human body is composed of trillions of cells that contains the fundamental molecules of life and of which all living things are composed. A single cell is often a complete organism in itself.

Cells are largely composed of compounds that contain carbon

Water 70 percent of a cell’s mass, a cell is composed mostly of macromolecules.

largest portion of cell macromolecules are proteins

Cells obey the laws of chemistry and thermodynamics

The body contain trillions of cells, organized into more than 200 major types.

The cells communicate with each other and connect to create organism for example tissues, organs then body Systems and everything the body needs.

The longest cell in the body is the motor neuron. It measures 0,1 millimetres in diameter and about 1 metre in length

The largest cell in the human body is the female egg, at about 0,12 millimetre in diameter and it is visible to the naked eye.

The red blood cells can live up to 120 days approximately. But different types of cells have different lifespan. The neurons live as long as you do but the skin cells can live only for a few weeks.

Neurotransmitters the body network

They are the body’s chemical messengers. They are the molecules used by the nervous system to transmit messages between neurons.

Different types of neurotransmitters see picture

Most neurotransmitters are inhibitory or excitatory.

Inhibitory neurotransmitters slow down the flow of information reducing the activity of neurons so they bring balance to the body.

Excitatory neurotransmitters increase the flow of information. The balance between the inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters that has the greatest effect on your body functions.

The neurotransmitters help to control and regulate most of your body’s functions.

There are more than 100 different types of neurotransmitters in the body.

7 major neurotransmitters

Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in our brain and central nervous system. it is important in learning and memory

GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) natural function is to reduce the activity of the neurons. It has an important role in behavior, cognition, and the body’s response to control fear and anxiety when neurons become overexcited.

Dopamine role in how we feel pleasure. It’s a part of our ability to think and plan. It helps us s, focus, and find things interesting.

Adrenaline (Epinephrine) is to prepare the body for the ‘fight or flight’ response in times of stress, important for attentiveness, emotions, sleeping, dreaming, and learning.It also released as a hormone into the blood, where it causes blood vessels to contract and heart rate to increase.

Serotonin is found mostly in the digestive system helps regulate your mood naturally. When your serotonin levels are normal, you feel happier and calm

Oxytocin is a hormone that also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. Greater amounts of oxytocin hormone levels appear to be associated with greater relaxation, more willingness to trust others, and general psychological stability.

Acetylcholine are in all motor neurons, where it stimulates muscles to contract. The movements of the stomach and heart to the blink of an eyelash, all of the body’s movements involve the actions of this important neurotransmitter. Also in mental processes such as memory and cognition